Hustisya Essay Definition

Department of Justice
Kabatiran ng ahensiya
TanggapanGusali ng DOJ, Kalyeng Padre Faura, Ermita, Lungsod ng Maynila
Taunang badyet₱11.3 billion (2015)[1]
Tagapagpaganap ng ahensiyaVitaliano Aguirre II, Kalihim
Justitiae Pax Opus (Katarungan, Kapayapaan, Trabaho)

Ang Kagawaran ng Katarungan (Ingles: Department of Justice o DOJ), ay isang departamentong tagapagpatupad ng Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas na responsable sa pagpatupad ng mga batas ng Pilipinas. Sa kasalukuyan ito ay pinamumunuan ni Vitaliano Aguirre II simula sa taong 2016.

Ang misyon nito ay makapagtatag at mapanatili ang pantay at maayos na lipunan sa pamamagitan ng epektibo, mabilis at makataong pagbibigay ng hustisya.

Kalihim ng Hustisya[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Ang opisina ng kalihim ng hustisya ay binubuo ng mga opisina ng kalihim ng hustisya at ang kanyang apat na sakop na kalihim at tatlong katulong na kalihim.

Mayroon itong anim na pangunahing pagkakahati-hati ang Legal Staff; Board of Pardons and Parole; the Office of the Chief State Prosecutor; and the Technical Staff. Ang natitira pang dalawa ay ang Serbisyong Pinansiyal at Pamamahala, at Serbisyong Administratibo.

Tala ng mga Kalihim ng Katarungan[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

(*) Pansamantalang Tagapamalakad (**) Sabay na ginagampanan bilang Pangulo

BilangPangalanBuwang NagsimulaBuwang NagtaposPangulong pinaglingkuran
Kalihim ng Katarungan
AGregorio S. Araneta26 Setyembre 189819 Mayo 1899
Abogado Heneral
1Florentino Torres29 Mayo 18994 Hunyo 1901Emilio Aguinaldo
Kalihim ng Pananalapi at Katarungan
BHenry C. Ide1 Setyembre 190130 Hunyo 1908
CGregorio S. Araneta1 Hulyo 190810 Oktubre 1913
DVictorino Mapa1 Nobyembre 191330 Hunyo 1920
Kalihim ng Katarungan
EQuintin B. Paredes1 Hulyo 192015 Disyembre 1921
FJose Abad Santos26 Abril 192217 Hulyo 1923
1 Setyembre 192818 Hunyo 1932
GLuis P. Torres31 Agosto 192819 Hunyo 1932
HAlexander A. Reyes19 Hunyo 193231 Disyembre 1932
IQuirico M. Abeto1 Enero 19335 Hulyo 1934
2Jose Yulo6 Hulyo 193415 Nobyembre 1938
Manuel Quezon
3Jose Abad Santos5 Disyembre 193816 Hulyo 1941
Komisyoner ng Katarungan
4Teofilo L. Sison18 Hulyo 194127 Nobyembre 1941Manuel Quezon
5Jose P. Laurel24 Disyembre 19414 Disyembre 1942
(4)Teofilo L. Sison4 Disyembre 194224 Oktubre 1944
Sergio Osmeña
Kalihim ng Katarungan, Paggawa at Kagalingan
*Mariano A. Eraña19441945Sergio Osmena
Kalihim ng Katarungan, Pagsasaka at Kalakalan
5Delfin J. Jaranilla8 Marso 194531 Disyembre 1945Sergio Osmeña
Kalihim ng Katarungan
6Ramon Quisumbing2 Enero 194628 Mayo 1946Sergio Osmeña
Manuel Roxas
7Roman Ozaeta29 Mayo 194617 Setyembre 1948
Elpidio Quirino
8Sabino B. Padilla19 Setyembre 194830 Hunyo 1949
9Ricardo P. Nepomuceno1 Hulyo 194925 Hulyo 1950
10Jose P. Bengzon29 Agosto 195023 Setyembre 1951
11Oscar Castelo1 Enero 195231 Disyembre 1953
*Roberto Gianzon17 Agosto 195331 Disyembre 1953
12Pedro T. Tuazon4 Enero 19544 Hunyo 1959Ramon Magsaysay
Carlos Garcia
*Jesus G. Barrera18 Abril 19584 Hunyo 1959
13Enrique Fernandez11 Hunyo 195913 Hulyo 1959
14Alejo R. Mabanag14 Hulyo 195931 Disyembre 1961
15Jose W. Diokno2 Enero 196219 Mayo 1962Diosdado Macapagal
16Juan R. Liwag20 Mayo 19627 Hulyo 1963
17Salvador L. Marino8 Hulyo 196331 Disyembre 1965
(2)Jose Yulo1 Enero 19664 Agosto 1967Ferdinand Marcos
18Claudio Teehankee, Sr.5 Agosto 196716 Disyembre 1968
19Juan Ponce Enrile17 Disyembre 19687 Pebrero 1970
20Felix Makasiar8 Pebrero 19701 Agosto 1970
Kalihim ng Katarungan
21Vicente Abad Santos2 Agosto 19701978Ferdinand Marcos
Ministro ng Katarungan
Vicente Abad Santos197816 Enero 1979Ferdinand Marcos
22Catalino T. Macaraig, Jr.17 Enero 197922 Hulyo 1979Ferdinand Marcos
23Ricardo C. Puno23 Hulyo 197930 Hunyo 1984
24Estelito P. Mendoza30 Hunyo 198427 Pebrero 1986
Kalihim ng Katarungan
25Neptali A. Gonzales28 Pebrero 19868 Marso 1987Corazon C. Aquino
26Sedfrey A. Ordoñez13 Marso 19872 Enero 1990
27Franklin M. Drilon4 Enero 199014 Hulyo 1991
28Silvestre H. Bello III15 Hulyo 19916 Pebrero 1992
29Eduardo G. Montenegro10 Pebrero 199230 Hunyo 1992
(27)Franklin M. Drilon1 Hulyo 19922 Pebrero 1995Fidel V. Ramos
30Demetrio G. Demetria3 Pebrero 199519 Mayo 1995
31Teofisto T. Guingona, Jr.20 Mayo 19953 Pebrero 1998
(28)Silvestre H. Bello III4 Pebrero 199830 Hunyo 1998
32Serafin R. Cuevas1 Hulyo 199815 Pebrero 2000Joseph Ejercito Estrada
33Artemio G. Tuquero16 Pebrero 200022 Enero 2001
34Hernando B. Perez23 Enero 20012 Enero 2002Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
35Ma. Merceditas N. Gutierrez27 Nobyembre 200215 Enero 2003
36Simeon A. Datumanong16 Enero 200323 Disyembre 2003
(35)Ma. Merceditas N. Gutierrez24 Disyembre 200331 Agosto 2004
37Raul Gonzalez1 Setyembre 20045 Setyembre 2007
*Agnes Devanadera5 Setyembre 2007Nobyembre 2007
(37)Raul M. GonzalezNobyembre 20072009
38Agnes Devanadera20092010
*Alberto Agra2010Hunyo 2010
39Leila de LimaHulyo 201012 Oktubre 2015Benigno S. Aquino III
40Alfredo Caguioa[2]12 Oktubre 201521 Enero 2016
*Emmanuel Caparas22 Enero 201630 Hunyo 2016
41Vitaliano Aguirre II30 Hunyo 2016kasalukuyanRodrigo Roa Duterte

Sanggunian[baguhin | baguhin ang batayan]

Writing an academic essay means fashioning a coherent set of ideas into an argument. Because essays are essentially linear—they offer one idea at a time—they must present their ideas in the order that makes most sense to a reader. Successfully structuring an essay means attending to a reader's logic.

The focus of such an essay predicts its structure. It dictates the information readers need to know and the order in which they need to receive it. Thus your essay's structure is necessarily unique to the main claim you're making. Although there are guidelines for constructing certain classic essay types (e.g., comparative analysis), there are no set formula.

Answering Questions:  The Parts of an Essay

A typical essay contains many different kinds of information, often located in specialized parts or sections. Even short essays perform several different operations: introducing the argument, analyzing data, raising counterarguments, concluding. Introductions and conclusions have fixed places, but other parts don't. Counterargument, for example, may appear within a paragraph, as a free-standing section, as part of the beginning, or before the ending. Background material (historical context or biographical information, a summary of relevant theory or criticism, the definition of a key term) often appears at the beginning of the essay, between the introduction and the first analytical section, but might also appear near the beginning of the specific section to which it's relevant.

It's helpful to think of the different essay sections as answering a series of questions your reader might ask when encountering your thesis. (Readers should have questions. If they don't, your thesis is most likely simply an observation of fact, not an arguable claim.)

"What?"  The first question to anticipate from a reader is "what": What evidence shows that the phenomenon described by your thesis is true? To answer the question you must examine your evidence, thus demonstrating the truth of your claim. This "what" or "demonstration" section comes early in the essay, often directly after the introduction. Since you're essentially reporting what you've observed, this is the part you might have most to say about when you first start writing. But be forewarned: it shouldn't take up much more than a third (often much less) of your finished essay. If it does, the essay will lack balance and may read as mere summary or description.

"How?"  A reader will also want to know whether the claims of the thesis are true in all cases. The corresponding question is "how": How does the thesis stand up to the challenge of a counterargument? How does the introduction of new material—a new way of looking at the evidence, another set of sources—affect the claims you're making? Typically, an essay will include at least one "how" section. (Call it "complication" since you're responding to a reader's complicating questions.) This section usually comes after the "what," but keep in mind that an essay may complicate its argument several times depending on its length, and that counterargument alone may appear just about anywhere in an essay.

"Why?"  Your reader will also want to know what's at stake in your claim: Why does your interpretation of a phenomenon matter to anyone beside you? This question addresses the larger implications of your thesis. It allows your readers to understand your essay within a larger context. In answering "why", your essay explains its own significance. Although you might gesture at this question in your introduction, the fullest answer to it properly belongs at your essay's end. If you leave it out, your readers will experience your essay as unfinished—or, worse, as pointless or insular.

Mapping an Essay

Structuring your essay according to a reader's logic means examining your thesis and anticipating what a reader needs to know, and in what sequence, in order to grasp and be convinced by your argument as it unfolds. The easiest way to do this is to map the essay's ideas via a written narrative. Such an account will give you a preliminary record of your ideas, and will allow you to remind yourself at every turn of the reader's needs in understanding your idea.

Essay maps ask you to predict where your reader will expect background information, counterargument, close analysis of a primary source, or a turn to secondary source material. Essay maps are not concerned with paragraphs so much as with sections of an essay. They anticipate the major argumentative moves you expect your essay to make. Try making your map like this:

  • State your thesis in a sentence or two, then write another sentence saying why it's important to make that claim. Indicate, in other words, what a reader might learn by exploring the claim with you. Here you're anticipating your answer to the "why" question that you'll eventually flesh out in your conclusion.
  • Begin your next sentence like this: "To be convinced by my claim, the first thing a reader needs to know is . . ." Then say why that's the first thing a reader needs to know, and name one or two items of evidence you think will make the case. This will start you off on answering the "what" question. (Alternately, you may find that the first thing your reader needs to know is some background information.)
  • Begin each of the following sentences like this: "The next thing my reader needs to know is . . ."  Once again, say why, and name some evidence. Continue until you've mapped out your essay. 

Your map should naturally take you through some preliminary answers to the basic questions of what, how, and why. It is not a contract, though—the order in which the ideas appear is not a rigid one. Essay maps are flexible; they evolve with your ideas.

Signs of Trouble

A common structural flaw in college essays is the "walk-through" (also labeled "summary" or "description"). Walk-through essays follow the structure of their sources rather than establishing their own. Such essays generally have a descriptive thesis rather than an argumentative one. Be wary of paragraph openers that lead off with "time" words ("first," "next," "after," "then") or "listing" words ("also," "another," "in addition"). Although they don't always signal trouble, these paragraph openers often indicate that an essay's thesis and structure need work: they suggest that the essay simply reproduces the chronology of the source text (in the case of time words: first this happens, then that, and afterwards another thing . . . ) or simply lists example after example ("In addition, the use of color indicates another way that the painting differentiates between good and evil").

Copyright 2000, Elizabeth Abrams, for the Writing Center at Harvard University

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