Academic Sources for Essays
This page contains important information about the types of academic sources you should use for your projects. If you have a source that is not included in this description, you can still use it in your paper, but it WILL NOT fulfill the academic source requirement. Remember that your individual project must refer to two outside academic sources that we have not used in our class (i.e., textbooks and additional readings don’t count towards this requirement, although you can still use them). Check how to evaluate online sources for more information on how to distinguish academic/scholarly sources from popular sources. If you have any doubts or concerns about any of the sources you want to use in your paper, make sure that you contact me well before the final version of your paper is due. I will gladly help you figure out what to incorporate in your paper. One last note: Remember that your outside sources should not take over your essay. In other words, make sure you focus on developing your own ideas and refer to other experts only to provide evidence to support your analysis. Your essay shouldn’t read as a summary of what others have said, but as your own argument and ideas.
In general, academic/scholarly sources have the following characteristics:
q They are written by a specific author or authors. In other words, scholarly sources specify who their authors are.
q They contain a title.
q They are roughly a minimum of 10-30 pages in length.
q They contain an extensive bibliography.
q They are published in peer-reviewed journals or by scholarly publishers.
WHAT DOES COUNT AS AN ACADEMIC SOURCE:
· Academic (non-fiction) books or chapters from those books.
· Articles (not abstracts or reviews) from academic journals or quarterlies.
· Some academic articles from academic web sites (i.e., those related to universities sites). The URL should contain “.edu” in it. Some “.edu” web sites and pages could be counted as academic, but you should first show those to me and get my permission.
· Articles (not abstracts or reviews) from EBSCO, JSTOR, or Project Muse.
WHAT DOESN’T COUNT AS AN ACADEMIC SOURCE:
· Books and articles we use in class.
· Abstracts, book reviews, and most introductions to fictional works (regardless of where they are published).
· Cliff Notes, Spark Notes, and similar online or printed references.
· Non-academic web pages.
· Fiction books (novels, poetry, and drama).
· Newspaper articles or articles found in popular magazines or magazines such as Time, Newsweek, BusinessWeek, U.S. News and World Report.
· Encyclopedias, Wikipedia entries, and other reference works. (Please, avoid these in your college essays).
· Dictionaries. (Avoid including dictionary definitions in your college essays. You should be able to define terms and ideas in your own words).
· Movies and TV shows.
· The Bible, the Qur’an, or any other sacred/religious text.
Once a source is found and incorporated into an essay, the source needs to be cited. The information that must be included to cite a source depends on the format (MLA, APA, Chicago Manual of Style) that is being used for the essay. However, regardless of format, the purpose of all citations is the same: to avoid plagiarism and to provide the reader with the necessary information about where the information originates from.
Many beginning writers think of plagiarism as trying to pass off information or words (writing) from someone else as the writer’s own. While this is true, plagiarism also occurs when outside information that is used in an essay is not cited correctly or cited at all, regardless of intent. The consequences of plagiarism can be quite severe and can range from flunking an individual assignment or class to facing possible expulsion and sometimes even legal consequences. Because of this fact, all writers need to learn how to cite sources properly.
What to cite
Most writers know that quotes (using someone else’s exact words) must be cited; however, quotes are not the only type of information that needs to be cited in an essay. Any information that is taken from another source, even if it is paraphrased (put into different words), needs to be cited in the same manner as a quote. In other words, claims and ideas that originate from others need to be cited as well. As mentioned earlier, the proper way to cite a source depends on the type of source and the format that is being used for a paper, but regardless of which format is used, the most important aspect of citing any source is making it clear that the information being presented is coming from another source by giving the full name of the author or person behind the information that is being used.
Here is a list of information that should always be cited:
Quotes: Anytime the exact wording of an original source/author is used, no matter how short or long the wording is, it must be placed in quotation marks and attributed to the original source. This is also true of partial quotes (when only part of a sentence, for example, is used)
Paraphrases: A paraphrase involves restating original information into new language. The key to a successful paraphrase is to change both the wording used and the order, or structure, or the sentence. Unless the original language is vivid and/or original and changing it would result in a loss of meaning, paraphrasing is generally preferred to quoting. Paraphrases must be cited by attributing to the original source just like quotes.
View the Paraphrasing Page and the Using Quotations page for more information.
Statistics and other data: The results of studies often result in statistics. This type of data must be cited by providing the name of the person or agency responsible for generating the statistic(s). The use of statistics and other data is common is research essays.
Studies: The findings and/or interpretations of studies must be attributed by citing the primary researcher(s) responsible for performing the study. If using a secondary source that interprets a study done by someone else, that source must also be cited.
View the Primary vs. Secondary Sources Page for more information.
Arguments and ideas: Anytime you, as the writer, are providing or furthering a specific argument made by someone else, this needs to be cited. The same is true of original ideas.
Summaries: A summary is a condensed version of another work put into your own words. In this sense, it’s like a paraphrase, but summaries generally occur when using longer or complete sources. For example, a writer may summarize an entire essay or study, a section or chapter of a book, or even an entire book. When summarizing, be sure to cite all information to the original author by using author ID tags and cite specific information (such as stats) or quotes with full citations.
View the Summarizing Page for more information.
When in doubt, cite. Following this general rule will eliminate plagiarism. At worst, it will create an unnecessary reference/citation in the text, but an unnecessary citation is much better than a missing one.
Some facts and dates do not have to be cited because they can be found numerous places and, thus, are not attributable to one particular source. This is referred to as common knowledge, not because everyone knows this information offhand, but enough people do that the information is considered common (hence the term common knowledge). Examples of common knowledge include widely known facts and dates. For example, if a writer wanted to mention that the United States’ Declaration of Independence was ratified on July 4, 1776, this information is considered common knowledge and would not have to be cited, even if the writer had to look up the exact date to be sure.
Again, though, always follow this general rule: when in doubt, cite.
For more information on citing sources correctly, view the MLA, APA, and Chicago Manual of Style and examples located on this site, use a credible reference manual, and/or visit the Aims Learning Commons and speak with a librarian or writing tutor.