Elena Filme Critical Thinking

MirrorMask is a 2005 fantasy film designed and directed by Dave McKean and written by Neil Gaiman from a story they developed together, starring Stephanie Leonidas, Jason Barry, Rob Brydon, and Gina McKee. The music used in the film was composed by Iain Ballamy. It was produced by The Jim Henson Company.

The film's story revolves around a young girl named Helena Campbell, who is sick of her family's career as circus performers. Helena's mother is hospitalized after they have an argument, and Helena finds herself trapped in a fantasy world shortly after.

Gaiman and McKean worked on the film concepts over the course of two weeks at Jim Henson's family's home, and actual production of the film took seventeen months. Created on a budget of $4 million, the film was originally made as a direct-to-video film,[1] but had a limited theatrical run in the United States on September 30, 2005, resulting in a domestic theatrical gross of $867,000. The film was also screened at the 2005 Sundance Film Festival where it received positive responses. The overall critical reaction to the film was mixed, with critics praising the film's visuals while complaining about the overall story and script.


Helena (Stephanie Leonidas) works with her parents (Gina McKee and Rob Brydon) at their family circus, but desires to run away and join real life. At the next performance, after Helena and her mother have a heated argument, Helena's mother collapses and is taken to the hospital. Ten days later, while Helena is staying with her grandmother, she finds that the doctors determine that Helena's mother requires an operation, and Helena can only blame herself for the situation. That night, she wakes up in a dream-like state and leaves her building to find three performers outside. As they try to perform for Helena, a shadow encroaches on the area and two of the performers are consumed by it. The third performer, Valentine (Jason Barry), a juggler, helps to quickly direct Helena to safety through the use of magical flying books. She learns they are in the City of Light which is slowly being consumed by shadows, causing its widely varied citizens to flee. Soon Helena is mistaken for the Princess. She and Valentine are taken to the Prime Minister (Brydon). He explains that the Princess from the Land of Shadow stole a charm from the City of Light, leaving their White Queen (McKee) in a state of unnatural sleep and the City vulnerable to the Shadows. Helena notes the resemblance of the Queen and Minister to her mother and father, and offers to help recover the charm along with Valentine. They are unaware their actions are being watched by the Queen of Shadows (also McKee) who has mistaken Helena as the Princess of the Land of Shadows.

Helena and Valentine attempt to stay ahead of the shadows as they follow clues to the charm, learning that it is called the "MirrorMask". Helena discovers that by looking through the windows of the buildings, she can see into her bedroom in the real world, through the drawings of windows that she created and hung on the wall of her room. She discovers that a doppelgänger of herself is living there and behaving radically different from her. The doppelganger soon becomes aware of her presence in the drawings and begins to destroy them, causing parts of the fantasy world to collapse. Valentine betrays Helena to the Queen of Shadows in exchange for a large reward of jewels. The Queen's servants warp Helena's mind so she will believe she is the Princess of Shadows. Valentine has a change of heart and returns to the Queen's palace, and helps Helena to break the spell on her. They search the Princess' room, and Helena discovers the MirrorMask hidden in the Princess' mirror. They flee the castle with the charm.

As they escape to Valentine's flying tower, Helena realizes that her doppelganger in the real world is the Princess of Shadows, who had used the MirrorMask to step through the windows in Helena's drawings. The Princess destroys the rest of the drawings in Helena's room, preventing Helena from returning, and Helena and Valentine disappear in the collapsed world. The Princess takes the drawings to the building's roof to disperse the shreds into the wind, but discovers one more drawing Helena had made on the back of the roof door. Helena successfully returns to the real world, sending the Princess back to her realm. At the same time, the White Queen finally awakens and the two Cities are restored to their natural balance.

Helena returns to her apartment to learn that her mother's operation was successful; Helena returns to happily help at the circus. Sometime later, Helena becomes fascinated by a young man, strongly resembling Valentine, who wants to be a juggler for the circus.


  • Stephanie Leonidas as Helena Campbell, a young circus performer and aspiring artist who is drawn into a mysterious world of masked people and monsters shortly after her mother is hospitalized. It is eventually revealed that the world she entered was created through her own drawings that she hung up on the walls of her room. Leonidas stated that she expected that filming would be difficult because most of the scenes were done with one or two other actors just with a bluescreen in the background, but also said that "it all came alive" for them when they started working.[2]
    • Leonidas also portrays The Princess, the rebellious daughter of the Queen of Shadows, who is Helena's parallel self. She uses the MirrorMask to switch places with Helena and hides it in her room. After escaping to the "real world", she takes advantage of her new freedom: dressing like a teenage punk, kissing boys, smoking, and arguing with Helena's father.
  • Jason Barry as Valentine, a juggler who keeps describing himself as a "very important man." He becomes Helena's companion in the dream world, although he betrays Helena by handing her over to the Queen of Shadows. He regrets this decision, however, and returns to rescue Helena. He is very proud of his tower, though he mentions that he had an argument with it and that they parted ways. As he and Helena are being pursued by the Queen of Shadows, he calls the tower to aid their escape by shouting an apology to it. When Helena reawakens in her world, she meets him again auditioning as a juggler for the circus.
  • Rob Brydon as Morris Campbell, Helena's father. A juggler and ringmaster of his family circus, he is a gentle and kind man with an artistic temperament. He is frightened and overwhelmed by his wife's illness. Rob Brydon also plays the White Queen's majordomo.
  • Gina McKee as Joanne Campbell, Helena's mother. A circus acrobat and ticket-seller, Joanne collapses during a skit and is confined in the hospital shortly after having an argument with Helena. After successful operation, Joanne recovers and returns to circus life with her family.
    • McKee also plays The Queen of Shadows, a possessive mother who treats her daughter like a pet. She mistakes Helena for the Princess who has run away, but when Helena reveals who she is, the Queen does not care as long as she has a daughter.
    • McKee also plays The Queen of Light, a kind ruler. She falls into a deep sleep when the MirrorMask is stolen from her, leaving her city vulnerable to the Shadows.
  • The film also features appearances by Dora Bryan and the voices of Stephen Fry, Lenny Henry and others.



Executive producer Michael Polis mentioned that the idea of creating MirrorMask began when The Jim Henson Company and Sony Pictures expressed interest in making a film that would sell as well in video release as Labyrinth and The Dark Crystal based on the two films' consistent DVD sales in 1999. They had considered creating a prequel to Dark Crystal and sequels for Labyrinth, but decided that "it made the most sense to try and create something similar or in the spirit of those films and attribute it as a Jim Henson Company fantasy title."[1]

After being shown a short film directed by McKean, Lisa Henson contacted Gaiman in 2001 about the project, asking if McKean would be interested in directing and if Gaiman was interested in coming up with the story for the film. Gaiman agreed to write for the film if McKean agreed to direct.[1][3]

Production for the film took seventeen months, with a budget of $4 million.[4] Though limited by the $4 million budget, McKean viewed this as a good thing, saying "It's very good to have a box to fight against, and to know where your limitations are, because it immediately implies a certain kind of thing... a certain kind of shape... a certain approach to things."[5]


According to McKean, the film's setting was originally in London, but that had opted to film it in Brighton at producer Simon Moorhead's suggestion. McKean described Brighton as "more bohemian, so that fits with the whole circus thing, with Helena’s family", and that he liked the specific apartment building - Embassy Court - that they used because "it’s very distinctive, imposing, it does have this character, but it also represents Helena’s collapse and her disintegration into this other world and it’s a potent symbol for her mother."[6]


McKean and Gaiman worked on the story and concepts for the film over a span of two weeks in February 2002 at the Henson's family home.[5][7] Gaiman stated that he wanted to do "a sort of Prince and Pauper idea. Something with a girl who was somehow split into two girls who became one at the end." He went on to say that he "had an idea of a girl who was part of a traveling theatre and her mother getting sick and having to go off the road", and mentioned that McKean preferred to have a circus over a theatre "because it was more interesting visually." McKean was the one who came up with the idea of the masks and the two mothers.[4] McKean said that Labyrinth provided something of a starting point for the project, and that he liked the "human element of that film," but that ultimately the story of MirrorMask was something that he and Gaiman came up with on their own.[6] Gaiman wrote the screenplay in February 2002,[8] and said that they always knew that it would be a coming of age story about a girl on a quest, but that later they learned "that it really was just the story of the relationship between a girl and her mother."[9]


Polis initially spoke to both McKean and Brian Froud, the concept artist for Labyrinth and The Dark Crystal.[1] The initial intention was to have McKean direct the film with Froud doing the designs, but Polis stated that it "made more sense" to have McKean do the designs seeing as he was the one directing the film.[1] Since they had a tight budget, McKean designed creatures who were comparatively simple.[6] He assigned entire sequences rather than tiny pieces to individual artists, so that the young professionals working on the film would have the creative opportunity to make part of it their own.[10] He worked with them very closely in a single room.[6] About the animators, he said that, "All but two were straight from art school and almost all from Bournemouth. We took half the class. They all knew each other already."[11] McKean says that one example of the spirit of the film is that they only had one peach during the filming of the scene where Valentine eats the future fruit.[10] Artist Ian Miller also contributed to the designs of trees and certain other objects in the film, and also provided some of the illustrations pinned to Helena's bedroom wall.[12]


The music used in the film was composed by Iain Ballamy, McKean's friend whom he describes as "one of Europe's best sax players" and "a terrific composer." McKean stated that he "wanted a musical landscape that never quite settled on anywhere geographically or time-wise as well." He also noted that Ballamy has composed music for and performed in circuses before, and that "[h]e just seemed to be perfect for it." McKean said that they could not afford to have a full orchestra due to budget constraints, but that they commissioned several of Ballamy's contacts to help record the music. Digital recordings were used with the aid of Ashley Slater, but McKean stated that most of the instruments used were real. Swedish singer Josefine Cronholm provided the vocals for the songs used in the film. The circus band are musicians from Farmers Market.[4] The film's soundtrack, containing thirty tracks of background music and songs used in the film, was released by La-La Land Records in 2005.[13]


The film was first screened at a high school, where it got a positive response. The film also received positive reactions when it was screened at the Sundance Film Festival.[8] The film was originally made for a direct-to-video release,[1] but had its limited theatrical release on September 30, 2005, in the United States.

The North American DVD was released on February 14, 2006.[14] The DVD contains additional content such as commentaries, interviews, behind-the-scenes clips, and an art gallery.[15] The film was listed as #31 on the Billboard Top DVD Sales chart the week of March 11, 2006.[16] Neil Gaiman commented that the DVD sold "better than expected" and that it was "gathering an audience".[17]


Box office[edit]

The film earned a total domestic gross of $866,999, earning $126,449 on its opening weekend.[18]

Critical response[edit]

The film received mixed reactions from critics, was given a 54% "rotten" rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 86 reviews.[19]Metacritic gave the film a weighted average score of 55% based on 27 reviews.[20]

Critic Roger Ebert gave the film two out of four stars, praising the film's visual artistry but stating that there is "no narrative engine to pull us past the visual scenery", and that he "suspected the filmmakers began with a lot of ideas about how the movie should look, but without a clue about pacing, plotting or destination."[21] Lisa Schwarzbaum of Entertainment Weekly gave the film a rating of A-, saying that the film is a "dazzling reverie of a kids-and-adults movie, an unusual collaboration between lord-of-the-cult multimedia artist Dave McKean and king-of-the-comics Neil Gaiman (The Sandman)" and that it "has something to astonish everyone."[22]Stephen Holden of The New York Times described the film's look as "hazy, indistinct, sepia-tinted, overcrowded and flat", and that "its monochromatic panoramas are too busy and flat to yield an illusion of depth or to convey a feeling of characters moving in space." He went on to say that the film is "The embodiment of a cult film, one destined for a rich life on home video".[23]Desson Thomson of The Washington Post described the film as "so single-minded in its reach for fantasy, it becomes the genre's evil opposite: banality."[24]

Award nominations[edit]

The film was nominated for the Golden Groundhog Award for Best Underground Movie,[25] other nominated films were Lexi Alexander's Green Street, Rodrigo García's Nine Lives, the award-winning baseball documentary Up for Grabs and Opie Gets Laid.[26]

Other media[edit]

In 2005, Tokyopop, in partnership with The Jim Henson Company, announced plans to publish a manga-style comic prequel to the film, which would center around the Princess' escape from the Dark Palace and how she acquired the MirrorMask.[27] The manga was reportedly canceled in 2007.[28]

A children's book based on the film, authored by Gaiman and illustrated by McKean, was published by HarperCollins Children's Books in September 2005.[29] An audiobook based on the children's book has also been released by HarperCollins in December 2005.[30] A book containing the film's complete storyboard and script as well as some photographs and archival text by Gaiman and McKean, titled The Alchemy of MirrorMask, was also published by HarperCollins in November 2005.[31]

The band The Crüxshadows wrote and performed "Wake the White Queen", which retells the story of MirrorMask. This track appears on the Neil Gaiman-inspired compilation album, Where's Neil When You Need Him?

Dark Horse Comics released a number of MirrorMask related merchandise in 2005. Three PVC figure sets, which included three figures per set, were released from May to June 2005. These sets included figures of characters such as Helena, Valentine, the Dark Queen, as well as figures of minor characters like the Librarian and the Small Hairy Guy.[32][33][34] A journal made to look like the Really Useful Book, which provided aid for Helena in the film, was released in July 2005,[35] and a seven-inch tall bust of the Dark Queen was released in August 2005.[36]


External links[edit]

The Jim Henson Company

Henson Family
Major works
TV series
TV specials
  • Time Piece (1965, short film)
  • The Cube (1969, teleplay)
  • Gulliver's Travels (1996, miniseries)
  • Jack and the Beanstalk: The Real Story (2001, miniseries)
  • Farscape: The Peacekeeper Wars (2004, miniseries)
  • The Sam Plenty Cavalcade of Action Show Plus Singing! (2008, web series)
  • Unstable Fables (2008, DTV film)
  • Oscar's Hotel for Fantastical Creatures (2015, web series)
  • Turkey Hollow (2015, TV film)
  1. ^ abcdefWeiland, Jonah (August 6, 2004). "Putting on the "MirrorMask": Executive Producer Michael Polis on the Film". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  2. ^Epstein, Daniel Robert. "Stephanie Leonidas of MirrorMask". UGO.com. Archived from the original on 4 November 2005. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  3. ^Flanagan, Mark (September 9, 2005). "Neil Gaiman Interview (page 2)". About.com. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  4. ^ abcKhouri, Andy (September 15, 2005). "The "MirrorMask" Interviews: Neil Gaiman & Dave McKean". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  5. ^ abP., Ken (7 Feb 2005). "An Interview with Dave McKean (page 3)". IGN. News Corporation. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  6. ^ abcdHolmes, Kevin. "Dave McKean talks to Close-Up Film About MirrorMask". close-upfilm.com. Archived from the original on 2013-12-21. Retrieved 2008-12-09. 
  7. ^Rogers, Troy. "Neil Gaiman Interview". UGO.com. Archived from the original on 30 April 2006. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  8. ^ abBrevet, Brad (2005-01-31). "INTERVIEW: Neil Gaiman Talks 'MirrorMask' and More". RopeofSilicon.com. Retrieved 2008-12-09. 
  9. ^Wilkinson, Amber. "Behind The MirrorMask". Eye For Film. Retrieved 2008-12-09. 
  10. ^ abSimon Moorhead et al. (2006). MirrorMask. Bonus Features: Making of MirrorMask(DVD). Sony Pictures Home Entertainment. 
  11. ^Carnevale, Rob. "Mirrormask - Dave McKean interview". IndieLondon.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-12-09. 
  12. ^McKean, Dave; Gaiman, Neil (2006). MirrorMask(DVD commentary). Sony Pictures Home Entertainment. 
  13. ^"MirrorMask". La-La Land Records. Archived from the original on 2009-09-17. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  14. ^Swindoll, Jeff (February 13, 2006). "DVD Review: MirrorMask". Monsters and Critics. Archived from the original on August 2, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-02. 
  15. ^"MirrorMask - About the DVD". Sony Pictures. Archived from the original on 2009-03-01. Retrieved 2009-07-02. 
  16. ^"Top DVD Sales Mirrormask". Billboard. Retrieved 2009-07-02. [dead link]
  17. ^Gaiman, Neil (May 31, 2006). "Gremlin rules". NeilGaiman.com. Retrieved 2009-07-02. 
  18. ^"MIRRORMASK". Box Office Mojo. Amazon.com. Archived from the original on 2009-07-25. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  19. ^"MirrorMask (2005)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  20. ^"MirrorMask". Metacritic. CBS. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  21. ^Ebert, Roger (September 30, 2005). "MirrorMask". Chicago Sun Times. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  22. ^Schwarzbaum, Lisa (September 28, 2005). "MirrorMask (2005)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  23. ^Holden, Stephen (September 30, 2005). "A Teenager's Phantasmagoric Journey to Her Own Identity". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  24. ^Thomson, Desson (September 30, 2005). "A Mere Reflection". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  25. ^von Busack, Richard (March 8, 2006). "Sunnyvale". Metroactive. Retrieved 2009-09-10. 
  26. ^Tyler, Joshua (January 10, 2006). "Shatner Gets His Own Award". Cinema Blend. Retrieved 2009-09-10. 
  27. ^"Tokyopop Press Release". 2005-07-19. Archived from the original on 2009-09-12. Retrieved 2009-04-17. 
  28. ^"Ask the Editors: Any news about the Mirrormask manga?". 2007-08-06. Archived from the original on 2009-09-12. Retrieved 2009-04-17. 
  29. ^"MirrorMask (children's edition)". HarperCollinsChildrens.com. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  30. ^"MirrorMask Unabridged CD". HarperCollins. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  31. ^"The Alchemy of MirrorMask". HarperCollins. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  32. ^"MirrorMask PVC Set #1". Dark Horse. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  33. ^"MirrorMask PVC Set #2". Dark Horse. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  34. ^"MirrorMask PVC Set #3". Dark Horse. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  35. ^"DHorse Deluxe Journal: MirrorMask Really Useful Journal". Dark Horse. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  36. ^"MirrorMask: Dark Queen Bust". Dark Horse. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 

A couple of days after its 50th anniversary, Elena Lazic writes this essay on Michelangelo Antonioni's "Blow-Up."

Compared to L’Avventura (1960) and L’Eclisse (1962), Blow-Up isn’t one of Michelangelo Antonioni’s most-loved films in critical circles, and arguably hasn’t been as extensively covered in scholarly study and critical analysis over the decades. Moreover, the appropriation of Blow-Up as an emblem of 1960s London in all its swinging glory and creativity certainly doesn’t help its critical standing, reducing it to the more vulgar status of a cult film. The iconic poster, showing David Hemmings’ photographer Thomas straddling model Verushka from above as she lies on the ground is a staple of many a hip university dorm.

Yet upon watching the film, dissociating it from its acquired significance, it quickly becomes obvious that Blow-Up is far more complex than it may seem, or at least has been understood to be. Its dealings with pop culture do not preclude it from depth and worth. In fact, at the end of a year in which politics, personal ethics and entertainment have collided in increasingly disturbing ways, Antonioni’s study on life, death, art and meaninglessness feels more relevant than ever.

In its early moments, Blow-Up looks and feels like a bad imitation of an Antonioni movie. The film opens on a crowd of elderly people seen leaving a flophouse in total silence. Later, we see brutalist social housing in construction, beautiful cars, an antique shop, and even a troupe of traveling mimes who instantly recall those in Federico Fellini’s Nights of Cabiria (1957). As such, the film seems to tick all the boxes of what an Antonioni film is sometimes reductively thought to be. Yet here the director does not pick up on any of the latent ideas usually associated with such imagery: respectively, poverty, modernity, time and decay, and the absurdity of living.

The profound existential dread so vividly felt in L’Eclisse when Monica Vitti’s Vittoria walks around a quiet town or visits the chaotic stock market is totally absent here despite the presence of similarly symbolic imagery. Here, images instead all seem benign, hollow even. This time, a building is just a building. Hasty, nonchalant, almost inattentive direction replaces the careful camera movements and meticulous framings of Antonioni’s previous films, a style which made elements transcend the screen and feel like real, three-dimensional objects. Buildings which in L’Avventura stood tall and menacing and so coldly indifferent, here only seem boring, even a little silly in their strange architecture.

This is because Blow-Up does not align with the perspective of a person in the throes of an existential crisis, but rather with that of a man whose sole concern in life is photography. Largely based on David Bailey, who photographed icons of the swinging 1960s from the Rolling Stones to the Beatles and Andy Warhol, Thomas is a young, successful artist who greets everything and everyone he encounters with amusement and mild mockery.

It isn’t so much that Thomas is selfish, but that feelings have no place in his entirely anesthetized world. The abundant surfaces around him never refer to anything other than themselves. In this world, images are completely divorced from meaning. A photo shoot looks like sexual intercourse but isn’t, a woman loves a man but sleeps with another, a propeller becomes an art object, Paris is mistaken for London, and so on. Meanwhile, the symbolic elements typical of Antonioni’s films here feel like cliches, prepackaged ideas that seem absurd and ridiculous in this world of insignificance (tellingly, “cliche” means “photograph” in French).

During one of his customary meandering journeys across London, Thomas winds up in a park and photographs a couple there. When the woman (Vanessa Redgrave) catches him in the act and immediately asks to retrieve the pictures, Thomas of course mocks her concern for privacy. “It’s not my fault if there’s no peace,” he says, and one wonders what Thomas—or Antonioni, for that matter—would think of our contemporary world, a time in which our lives have never been more public, whether we wish them to be or not.

After Thomas and the woman engage in a peculiar sequence of mutual attraction and seduction in his studio, he naturally gives her the wrong roll of film and proceeds to develop and examine the pictures which caused her such anxiety. One of the most striking and beautiful images he develops is of the woman looking towards the camera, her face forever frozen in an expression of terror harshly accentuated by the picture’s black-and-white palette. In another image, she seems to be looking at something over to her left. Thomas swiftly sets out to find out what this object is with a series of close-ups on sections of the image. In this sequence of investigation—edited and scored with unsettling stops and starts—Thomas’ curiosity leads him to finally reach beyond the realm of the beautiful to look for a meaning behind the image.

Put together in a way that touchingly recalls Chris Marker’s masterpiece La Jetée (1962), the photographer’s grainy enlargements reveal a man with a gun hiding in the bushes and the immobile body of the woman’s lover lying in the grass. But it is not until he goes back to the park and sees the body still lying there that Thomas appreciates the extent of what he’s inadvertently witnessed. In his usual arrogance, he naively thought he had saved a life back there, that his interruption had heroically prevented a man’s murder.

It is only when faced with the dead man’s body that Thomas is finally forced to face his own arrogance and illusion of control, qualities which more or less defined him up until this point. As it turns out, there is something at stake after all. It is at this point that death suddenly engulfs the film, crashing on Thomas like an unsuspecting wave and pushing his whole life out of balance. It taints every single image, restoring to previously banal elements their cruel indifference. Thomas, who has rather symbolically forgot to bring his camera back to the park, cannot reduce the dead body to a harmless image anymore.

The specter of death and the lack of control becomes even more acute when Thomas finds that someone has stolen from his apartment all pictures but one, an ominous close-up of the dead body. Scared and unsettled, he drives into town and glimpses the mysterious woman again. The sequence in which he follows her through a crowded club where the Yardbirds are playing (a young Jimmy Page from Led Zeppelin fame can be seen on guitar) is one of those seemingly commonplace scenes that now, in the context of death, responsibility and danger, reeks of indifference, emptiness and selfishness. An angry Jeff Beck smashes his guitar and throws its neck into the crowd. Thomas catches it and fans fight to get this worthless piece of wood from him. This sequence is more than a metaphor for herd mentality, but an authentic example of it, which only makes it much scarier.

That Thomas eventually throws the guitar neck away is a small, bitter victory for his newfound set of priorities over mass illusion. He only rids himself of the object once he is standing outside of the context in which it is valued. It is realistic and poignant how incomplete Thomas’ reckoning is. Confused, he does not understand exactly what it is that has changed inside him. There is no close-up on his face looking at the guitar neck he’s holding with an air of bewilderment. Rather, this is all to be understood by the active viewer.

Indeed, Blow-Up as a whole plays like an enigma for us to resolve. Earlier, there’s a sequence in which Thomas’ friend Bill, a painter, explains that his art is pure chaos until he finds a structure in it; only then does he know what his piece is about, the work emerging “like a detective story.” This moment is crucial as it clearly indicates to the viewer that the chaos of the film’s early moments will eventually find its structuring principle: namely, apathy.

From the moment Thomas sees the dead body in the park and starts paying real attention to all the things around him, Antonioni’s direction becomes more focused and precise. As Thomas loses sight of the mysterious woman in the chaos of the gig, he decides to go to a house party and find his agent Ron (Peter Bowles) to explain to him what he has seen. The man is simply too high on drugs to hear him. This detail echoes the earlier scene in which Thomas and the woman smoked some grass in his studio until she felt guilty for ignoring the real life-and-death reason why she’d come to visit him. Thomas now feels the same helplessness and urgency she felt as he tries and fails to convey the importance of what he has to say.

What is so bleak about this situation is that the people at the party do not consciously ignore Thomas, but that they have plainly and simply lost the ability to care. Responsibility towards one another isn’t possible in this configuration of society. Disheartened by his friend’s indifference, Thomas reluctantly and heartbreakingly concedes to staying and partying.

Returning the next day to the park, Thomas finds that the body has disappeared, and with no one aware of the man’s death, it feels to him as though the victim had never existed at all. Thomas’ attempts to do justice to this man and his existence, to make sure his death won’t go unpunished, have failed. For the first time, the photographer is faced with the triviality of a life in this society where notions of basic humanity have all but disappeared.

So what is there left? What is life in a world like this? The answer comes from the same group of mimes Thomas encountered at the beginning of the film. This time, they appear playing tennis in the park with an invisible ball. The photographer smiles sadly at their dedication to the fake game, but when they silently ask him to retrieve the ball and throw it back into the court, he does so just to please them. Yet in the following close-up, his face turned up to the sky as if in supplication, we see Thomas’ eyes gradually come to follow the ball as it lands. His pupils move from right to left and for the first time we can actually hear the non-existent ball being played.

While Thomas’ encounter with death awakens him from existential slumber and forces him to perceive reality for the first time, he realizes just as quickly that this knowledge is pointless if no one else shares it. Thomas knows that people believe in an illusion in the same way that the mimes believe they are playing tennis. But in the film’s closing moments, when Thomas decides to perceive the ball, he finally understands that he has no choice but to drink the Koo-Aid, take the blue pill and return to that illusion in order to survive. His literal fading away at the end of the film captures the intensely sad moment of his surrender.

Blow-Up is one of Antonioni’s most accessible films, but also one of his most ferocious. Its utterly hopeless cry at post-war indifference is all the more powerful because the film takes the time to establish and “normalize” the postmodern society of the 1960s. The sudden, unexpected and overwhelming surge of emotion felt halfway through is perhaps even more gut-wrenching today at a time in which our society has become even more impersonal, our indifference all the more banal. Here’s hoping that in 2017, unlike Thomas, we won’t have to stand alone.

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